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Clinical manifestations of

2017-04-26 17:49
Clinical manifestations of diabetic nephropathy:
1. Glomerular filtration rate with the earliest functional changes. In the newly developed T1DM and animal experiments, the diagnosis of diabetic glomerular filtration rate increased, the presence and continued proteinuria. The study of glomerular filtration rate in T2DM patients is less. Recent studies have reported that glomerular filtration rate in patients with T2DM diagnosis and control to a certain extent. Our study also confirmed this point, T2DM patients with glomerular filtration rate than the normal control group were 24.5%, respectively 123.8ml / min / 1.73M2 and 99.4ml / min 1.73M2.2 proteinuria, protein Urine is the most important manifestation of diabetic nephropathy. Determination of normal urinary albumin excretion by means of radioimmunoassay and other sensitive techniques was 1.1-21.9μg / min. The early stage of diabetic nephropathy, microalbuminuria (microalbuminuria) urinary protein excretion of 20-200μg / min (30-300mg / 24h), the main features of early diabetic nephropathy can predict the development of diabetic nephropathy, and prognosis A certain relationship. With the development of the disease, urinary albumin excretion gradually increased, when urinary albumin excretion more than 200μg / min, when urinary total protein excretion of about 0.5g / 24h, known as clinical diabetic nephropathy. Most of the urine protein excretion patients <1g> 3. nephrotic syndrome, about 10% of diabetic nephropathy in a certain stage of the disease manifested as nephrotic syndrome, urinary protein> 3g // 24h, serum albumin reduction, edema, hypercholesterolemia disease. Most patients in the short term into the renal insufficiency, poor prognosis. 4. Hypertension, hypertension is the late manifestation of diabetic nephropathy. However, longitudinal studies have found that diabetic patients before the emergence of nephropathy, blood pressure trends. Hypertension can accelerate the development of kidney disease, coupled with high blood pressure often occurs in the shorter period of renal failure. Effective antihypertensive therapy can delay the development of kidney disease and prolong the life of patients. 5. Renal insufficiency, clinical diabetic nephropathy occurred after 15 years of diabetes, once the obvious proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate gradually decreased, the average monthly decline of about 1ml / min. 5 to 20 years after entering the terminal stage of renal insufficiency. Young patients die of uremia. Elderly patients died of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, only about 1/4 died of uremia. 6 other, the emergence of clinical diabetic nephropathy, said the development of diabetes to the late, other complications of diabetes are also common. Such as 95% combined with diabetic retinopathy, and some patients are blind. Cardiovascular disease and neuropathy are more serious.

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