What are the clinical symptoms of nephrotic syndrome2017-05-09 18:47
What are the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome? Ji'nan kidney disease hospital expert introduction, the basic features of nephrotic syndrome is proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema (height) and hyperlipidemia, the so-called "three high and one low", and other metabolic disorders characterized by a group of clinical syndrome. Here is a detailed description of the Ji'nan kidney disease hospital experts. "" nephrotic syndrome patients appear "three high and one low" should be how to do? Let experts analyze for you
Ji'nan kidney hospital experts, nephrotic syndrome clinical symptoms:
1 massive proteinuria
A large number of proteinuria is the most important clinical manifestations of patients with nephrotic syndrome, but also the most basic pathophysiology of nephrotic syndrome. A large number of proteinuria is the output of adult urinary protein >3.5g/d. Under normal physiological conditions, glomerular filtration membrane has a molecular barrier and a charge barrier, resulting in an increase in the content of protein in the urine. On this basis, the increase in glomerular pressure and lead to high perfusion, high filtration factors (such as high blood pressure, high protein diet or a large number of infusion of plasma protein) can increase the excretion of urinary protein.
Plasma albumin decreased to <30g/L. A large amount of albumin is lost from the urine in nephrotic syndrome, which promotes the compensatory synthesis of albumin and the increase of renal tubular decomposition. When the increase in albumin synthesis in liver is not sufficient to overcome the loss and decomposition, hypoalbuminemia. In addition, patients with nephrotic syndrome due to gastrointestinal mucosal edema leading to poor appetite, insufficient protein intake, malabsorption or loss, also aggravate hypoproteinemia.
Nephrotic syndrome, hypoalbuminemia, plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased, so that water from the vascular cavity into the interstitial space, is the basic cause of nephrotic syndrome edema. Recent studies show that about 50% of patients with normal or increased blood volume, plasma renin levels decreased or normal, suggesting that some primary renal sodium and water retention factors play a role in the pathogenesis of edema in nephrotic syndrome.
The cause of nephrotic syndrome complicated with hyperlipidemia has not been fully elucidated. High cholesterol and (or) hypertriglyceridemia, elevated serum LDL, VLDL and lipoprotein (alpha) concentrations, often associated with hypoproteinemia. Hypercholesterolemia is mainly due to an increase in the synthesis of lipoproteins in the liver, but a decrease in the peripheral circulation is also part of the role. Hypertriglyceridemia is mainly due to the decomposition of metabolic disorders, liver synthesis increased as a secondary factor.