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What is the kidney failure

2017-05-05 19:12

Renal failure is part or all of the loss of the pathological state of the kidney in accordance with the acute exacerbation of acute and chronic uremia divided into two kinds of medical guide

Acute renal failure due to various diseases resulting in two renal loss of excretory function in a short period of time referred to as acute renal failure manifested oliguria (urine volume less than mL / D) or no urine (urine volume less than mL / D) electrolyte and acid-base imbalance and sudden uremia have a non oliguria type (urine volume > mL / D) correct and timely treatment of renal function recovery complex disease in critically ill patients or not at that time can be turned into the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency or death

Acute renal failure includes the following situations: prerenal azotemia due to insufficient blood volume or heart failure resulting in renal blood perfusion volume reduced glomerular filtration rate caused by the postrenal azotemia due to tumor or hypertrophy of the prostate stones urinary tract acute obstruction resulting in less urine and blood urea nitrogen (Bun). The kidney of acute renal failure due to renal disorders in severe acute glomerular disease of acute interstitial disease of acute renal tubular necrosis in acute renal vascular disease and chronic kidney disease to two renal deterioration in some incentive effect to the most common acute renal tubular necrosis

Etiology of acute renal failure:

Renal ischemia and kidney poisoning caused by various factors of prerenal azotemia caused sustained renal ischemia and hypoxia; renal toxicity of various substances such as bacterial endotoxin drugs and biological effects of toxic heavy metals in kidney can cause errors in addition type transfusion and drugs can cause acute intravascular hemolysis crush burns and severe myopathy with hemoglobin and myoglobin renal tubules and the occurrence of acute tubular necrosis and acute renal failure acute renal failure remains unknown pathogenesis of acute renal tubular injury theory cannot be completely explained in recent years that vascular contraction disorder caused by the release of active substances in renal hemodynamics and cell calcium influx and oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure plays an important effect

Clinical manifestations of acute renal failure:

Acute renal failure clinical manifestations of oliguric acute renal tubular necrosis stage: less urine urine reduce caused Gao Jia in water intoxication (edema, severe high blood pressure, pulmonary edema or cerebral edema) metabolic acidosis and acute uremic symptoms of hyperkalemia and water poisoning was the main cause of death in diuresis stage regeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells after the restoration of the urine volume increased gradually. The blood potassium low blood sodium sustained polyuria patients can die of dehydration and electrolyte disorder and recovery phase polyuria period after urine volume reduced to normal serum creatinine Bun (Scr) and electrolyte were normal but the level of renal function and structure still need to return to normal month failed to restore. Chronic renal failure is non oliguria urine volume but a lot of blood BunScr increasing and symptoms of poisoning due to kidney damage light so the prognosis is good

Acute renal failure in two renal ultrasound abrupt onset increased urine specific gravity < < mOsm / kg urine osmotic pressure and urine sodium > mmol / L can help the diagnosis of various etiologies of acute

 

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